The human skull is comprised of bones and cartilage that form the face and the cranium. The cranium bones are located at the top of the skull. The bottom of the cranium is composed of five bones that also form the roof of the nasal cavity, eye socket, bones that surround the inner ear, and some of the sinuses.
The skull base is complicated are many openings that the many blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerves all pass through the region. Normally, Skull base surgery may be done by removing both cancerous and noncancerous extra parts, and abnormalities found on the underside of the brain or in the skull base. Skull is a difficult area to see and reach, hence a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure is needed to treat that complicated area. In an endoscopic procedure, the surgeon inserts instruments through the nose or mouth-or making a small opening near the top of the eyebrow. This type of endoscopic surgery demands a team of specialists that may include throat, nose, and ear surgeons, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and maxillofacial surgeons. The time before endoscopic skull base surrey was introduced, Doctors remove a growth in the skull area was by making an opening in the skull.
Skull based surgery is used for removing some of the growth such as unwanted growth caused by infections, cysts that develop from birth, meningiomas, pituitary tumors, chromas, cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, craniosynostosis, and Arteriovenous malformations.
Doctors perform skull base surgery in two ways. The main one is endoscopic, and the other is open skull surgery, based on the type of growth that needs to be removed and its growth location.
Endoscopic: This type of surgery does not need a large incision. A doctor may make a small opening inside the nose or mouth to let a medical practitioner remove a growth through a thin lighted tube called an endoscope.
Open Skull Base Surgery: This kind of surgery may need incisions in the skull and the facial area. There is a need for the bone to be removed so that the unusual growth can be reached and treated easily.
The symptoms will vary based on the type, location, and size of the growth. Some of the symptoms from an abnormality or a growth in the skull base are Facial pain, Headache, Vision-related problems, Weakness of the face, hearing loss, nasal congestion, and Dizziness.
The diagnosis should be done based on your physical exam and symptoms. You have to undergo the following surgeries namely:
Brain Imaging Studies: To see the pictures of the skull to see growth or abnormality, you need to undergo tests such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), PET (positron emission tomography), MRA (magnetic resonance angiogram), and CT (computed tomography).
Other tests: You need to do a full-body check-up. You have to check muscle activity, cranial nerves, vision, and hearing.
Along with endoscopic surgery, you may also need treatments such as particle therapy, chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, proton beam therapy, and Gamma knife.