Neuroanatomy is the structure of the nervous system which consists of vast neural networks; signaling within these circuits lets learning, memory, thinking, language, sensation, and all functions. The nervous system performs three particular functions:
Sensory receptors present in the skin and organs responding to stimuli by creating nerve impulses that connect to the central nervous system.
The brain and spinal cord in the Central Nervous System integrate all the data generated from the human body and send out nerve impulses.
The nerve impulse generated from the central nervous system goes to the muscles and glands.
The Nervous System is classified into
The CNS is classified into two parts
The brain receives and processes sensory information, initiates responses, stores, intimate thoughts, and memorizes. The brain is divided into four main parts namely: Brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebral hemisphere.
It conducts signals from the brain and sends them to other parts of the body. It also controls reflex activities.
It consists of two cerebral hemispheres, the left and right hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum which facilitates communication between both the left and right sides of the brain. The hemispheres are then divided into four lobes namely: occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal.
The central nervous system is enclosed within the skull and vertebral column. These structures are separated by a membrane known as the meninges.
The core of the cell body contains the nucleus and cytoplasm. It focuses on the cell’s metabolic processes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes.
The four main types of neuroglial cells within the CNS are
Astrocytes: It is a small stellate cell that forms a structural and supporting framework for capillaries and neuron cells.
Oligodendrocytes: It is responsible for the myelination of CNS neurons. Clinical abnormalities of these cells can result in multiple sclerosis.
Ependymal Cells: It is essential for enabling the movement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Microglial Cells: It is found throughout the grey and white matter of the CNS.
It is the area within the brain lying on the medial side of the temporal lobe. It offers high-level processing of sensory information.
The arterial blood supply to the brain comes from the right internal carotid, left internal carotid, right vertebral arteries, and left vertebral arteries.
The blood supply to the spinal cord comes from a single anterior spinal artery and paired posterior spinal arteries.
The PNS is comprised of nerve trunks that are generated from both afferent axons that conduct sensory information to the spinal cord, and efferent fibers that transmit impulses to muscles. The peripheral Nerves connect with the spinal cord through foramina in the skull.
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System innervates the internal and glandular organs. The main functions of the ANS are regulation of body temperature, reproduction, secretion, respiration, and circulation. The ANS is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Somatic Nervous System
It is made up of nerves that are interconnected to the eyes, ears, nose, skin, etc. It is responsible for skeletal muscle contraction.