Neurovascular is a bundle like structure that binds veins and nerves with the help of connecting tissues. The two types of neurovascular bodies are superficial bundles and deep bundles. Both bundles differ in composition and function.
Superficial Bundles: It consists of nerves and capillaries. The capillaries have a large surface area and short diffusion path which act as the sites for substance exchange between blood and interstitial fluid. The capillaries are made up of a central lumen lined with an endothelium( a single layer of epithelial cells).
Deep bundles: It has a more complex structure than superficial neurovascular bundles. It includes arteries and these bundles have connective issues outside the endothelium. This bundle like structure let arteries to relax, contract, and transfer blood when under pressure.
Neurovascular is an abnormality that refers to all problems in which an area of the brain is permanently or temporarily affected by bleeding. The disease that arises along with this elaborate network of blood vessels, called the vascular system, can even lead to death.
Some of the abnormalities of neurovascular conditions are:
Cavernous Malformations: It is an abnormal collection of thin-walled blood vessels within normal brain tissue. This malformation is also known as cavernomas.
Moyamoya Disease: It is a condition in which the walls of the carotid arteries thicken and restrict the blood flow to the brain.
Brain Aneurysm: It is an abnormal bulging outward of the vessel wall in arteries that carrying blood to the brain.
Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM): It is a collection of abnormal blood vessels that grow in the sections of the brain.
Carotid and intracranial atherosclerosis: The blood vessels that supply blood to the brain may become narrowed and constricted because of the hardening of the arteries.
Stroke: it may occur when the blood flow to the brain is disturbed due to either blockage or a hemorrhage.
The symptoms of the neurovascular condition will differ based on the disease. Some of the abnormalities do not have any symptoms. The most common signs are
Numbness on one side of the body
Trouble in speaking
The treatment includes various endovascular neurosurgical procedures. Some of the surgical procedures are
Microsurgery: It is a surgery that needs an operating microscope. Several neurovascular diseases can be treated by open surgery using very small instruments called microsurgery.
Endovascular Surgery: It is a minimally-invasive procedure used to treat issues affecting the blood vessels like an aneurysm. It needs a small incision and is performed with in the artery via a catheter inserted into the blood stream at the groin and guided to the brain.
Radiosurgery: This surgery uses radiation therapy to demolish the swelled area or tumor. The Gamma knife is used to treat brain disorders without having to make incisions by delivering beams of radiation to a particular area of the brain.
You can also minor neurovascular disorders using medications, which help lower cholesterol and blood pressure and decrease the risk of blood clots.