Neurosurgical problems seen in children are quite different from those commonly seen in adults or general neurosurgery. Pediatric neurosurgery is the branch of neurosurgery and it includes surgical procedures that are related to the brain, spinal cord, and nervous system. Any serious illness that befalls a child leads to the both emotional and physical strain on the child and the family. The neurosurgical problems in the pediatric age are complex and demand regular care by specialists throughout their lifetime. Pediatric neurosurgery is rapidly evolving due to advancements in medical technology. Many of these advancements are intended to enhance clinical care and improve surgical outcomes. With the help of less invasive approaches, it is possible to reduce neurological morbidity which can result in reduced medical costs, increased patient satisfaction, and shorter lengths of stay. Neurosurgical disorders in children are distinct and demand a different set of knowledge and perspective.
Pediatric Neurosurgery Disorders
Pediatric neurosurgeons treat, diagnose, and manage children’s head, spine, and nervous system disorders including the following:
Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs): It is a medical condition in which veins and arteries do not connect properly. The treatments to treat this disorder includes observation, medication, targeted radiation, embolization, and surgery.
Brain Tumor: It is a complex condition where the tumor is located inside the brain. The treatment for brain tumors based upon the tumor type and its location in the brain.
Cerebral Aneurysm: It is the unusual widening of a blood vessel in the brain. The various treatments for cerebral aneurysms are embolization, observation, microvascular clapping, and more.
Cerebral Palsy: It is a medical complication in the central nervous system that can disturb movement, learning, speaking, seeing, and even thinking. You can treat cerebral palsy with the help of rhizotomy and spinal fusion.
Craniosynostosis: It is a complication found in infants in which a child’s skull closes too early. Surgery is performed to separate the skull to attain normal brain development and head shape.
Down Syndrome: It is a genetic disorder that impairs an infant's physical development and intellectual growth. The best treatment for down syndrome is a spinal fusion to offer stability to the bones in a patient’s neck.
Epilepsy: It is a disorder that affects the central nervous system and may result in seizures in the brain region. You can treat epilepsy with options including corpus callosotomy, resection, hemispherectomy, temporal lobectomy, and vagal nerve stimulator.
The pediatric surgeons treat small infants with the help of less invasive surgery and some of them are:
Endoscopic Craniosynostosis Repair: It is a minimally invasive technique that uses small cameras and incisions to treat infants with an early fusion of the bony structures of the skull.
Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery (EES): It is one of the less invasive techniques that use sinus and nasal opening to reach the base of the skull and brain.
Stereo Electro Encephalo Graphy (SEEG): It is a technique used to find the source of seizures in an infant's brain.
Stereotactic Laser Ablation (SLA): It is a procedure that destroys lesions in the brain region, including tumors and tissue that causes seizures.
You can treat neurosurgical disorders in infants using a medication, surgeries, and more.