Neuro-oncology is the branch of medicine that concerns cancer of the spinal cord and brain. Cancer on the nervous system is highly critical, when it is untreated or not identified, it could even lead to death. Some of the examples of cancer in the nervous system are glioma, pontine glioma, ependymoma, astrocytoma, and brain stem tumors. When the person with severe cancer on the nervous system did not get proper medical or treatment, he will eventually die within a few months. Surgeons can increase the affected patients by chemotherapy treatments, current radiation, and other treatments. The survival time periods will vary depending on the patient’s condition, Treatment used immune function, and type of cancer they had. In the case of malignant tumors, cancer cells tend to emerge and regenerate from reemission easily. Normally, metastatic tumors are formed due to cancer that has spread from another part of the human body. Primary tumors can form at any age but they often affect people while they are in middle age. Secondary tumors can spread to the nervous system through compression, metastasis, and direct invasion. This type of cancer is common among males than females, but meningiomas are seen as common in females.
Many inherited conditions in the human body can lead to brain tumors such as Turner Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis, and neurofibromatosis. Other factors are constant exposure to radiation, age factors, week immune system as a result of HIV, and the continuous usage of immunosuppressant medications.
The symptoms will vary depending on the type of tumor and its location in the nervous system. Some of the common symptoms are constipation, depression, anxiety, cranial nerve syndrome pulmonary Emnolus, Headaches, Gait Disturbances, Mental status changes, Nausea, and vomiting.
Diagnosis in Neuro-oncology uses imaging study to find the size, location, and extent of the tumor. The most common techniques are Computed tomography(CT), Lumbar puncture, Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis, Positron Emission Tomography(PET), Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI), Angiography, and Myelography.
Some of the common procedures are
Diagnostic Imaging Of The Brain And Spinal Cord: The imaging used in Neuro-oncology treatment is Myelography, positron emission counseling, diagnostic angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
Lumbar Puncture And Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis: This analysis is essential for the evaluation of neurologic complications of cancer, primary tumors, and some metastatic conditions.
Pathologic Diagnosis: Histologic Diagnosis is important for treatment planning and patient counseling. Surgically obtained tissue is used to make the histologic diagnosis.
The treatment approaches followed to cancers of the central nervous system are
Radiotherapy: It is a treatment for central nervous system tumors and so far, it improves the quality of life for patients with many metastatic brain tumors.
Chemotherapy: It is the use of drugs in the treatment of cancer.
Corticosteroids: It is used in patients with several neuro-oncologic conditions.
Neurosurgical Interventions: It is used for the treatment of primary central nervous system tumors.