CSF stands for Cerebrospinal fluid. It is a clear and colorless liquid produced by arterial blood. CSF fluid is found in the spinal cord and brain. The central nervous system controls and coordinates everything you do in your day-to-day life including organ function, muscle movement, and complex thinking. CSF forms a crucial component of the central nervous system and it protects the CNS by providing mechanical support to the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a cushioning agent to protect the brain and spinal cord from sudden impact or injury. This fluid also removes waste products from the brain and allow your central nervous system to work properly. The CSF fluid circulation and absorption affect the homeostasis of the CNS milieu. Changes or alterations in its circulation and production result in a Hydrocephalus, characterized by an accumulation of fluid within the cranium. The aberration in the absorption of cerebrospinal fluid around the spinal cord can result in syringomyelia. The cause of hydrocephalus is due to mass lesions, developmental abnormalities, infectious aetiologies, and hemorrhage. You can manage hydrocephalus and syringomyelia by neurosurgical interventions.
Blood: There is a possibility that blood may be spilled into the CSF by accidental puncture of a leptomeningeal vein when the nerve is accessed by the LP needle. It will result in viral infections such as brain tumors, brain abscesses, multiple sclerosis, syphilis, aseptic meningitis, and neuroborreliosis. Common CNS infections are fungal infections, encephalitis, tuberculosis, and meningitis.
Hemorrhaging: Using CSF analysis you can detect Intracranial Bleeding. Common causes for bleeding are stroke, high blood pressure, and aneurysm.
Immune Response Disorders: The immune system can affect the CNS through inflammation, antibody production, and destruction of the myelin sheath. The common immune response disorders are neurosyphilis, sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Tumors: It also results in tumors in the brain or spine.
Any alteration in CSF absorption and circulation will lead to many abnormalities, It can be managed by the following methods.
The standard current treatment of CSF related pathology is the placement of a shunt device that diverts CSF beyond the level of suspected obstruction to other locations in the body such as body cavities capable of absorbing the fluid.
Shunts: shunt is a device used CSF diversion which establishes a communication between a drainage cavity and the CSF space. The shunt is made up of several components including a valve system, a proximal catheter, and distal tubing.
Aetiological Treatment: it is the treatment of correct a malformation in the CSF flow. It may lead to leptomeningeal fibrosis which needs further intervention.
Membrane Fenestration: This procedure is performed by inserting a neuro endoscope into the ventricular system, and creation a hole in the floor of the third ventricle.
Medical Intervention: Using medical management, you can decrease the rate of CSF formation by the choroid plexus, or by increasing reabsorption such as acetazolamide, isosorbide, and more.
CSF acts as a cushion to the Central nervous system. It is produced in the central nervous system by a combined process of secretion and ultrafiltration, circulates over the spinal cord and brain, and is absorbed into the cerebral venous sinuses