Neuro-critical care is a growing subspecialty that was introduced for 30 years. It is the intensive care management of patients with complex neurosurgical and neurological illnesses. Neuro-critical care is given to the patient with urgent neurologic disorders. These are abnormalities that may need immediate surgical intervention. Neurocritical care offers an overview of current developments in neurosurgery, Neuroanesthesia, intensive care neurology, and technological innovations. Neuro-critical care was considered an important part of the neurosurgical ICU with established protocols for managing patients. Neuro-critical care offers the interface bet3ween the brain and the other organs in the human body. It offers comprehensive medical care and neurological support for patients with neurological disease by integrating the management of both the brain and the human body.
Some conditions that need neurocritical care is coma, cerebral aneurysm, Acute Ischemic stroke, brain tumors, Encephalopathy, cerebrovascular malformations, Traumatic brain injury, neuromuscular disorder, autonomic instability, and more.
Neurointensive Care Treatments
Head Trauma: The majority of head trauma is due to non-communicable conditions. The cause of head trauma are traffic injuries, falls, and violence. You can treat head trauma with ICP monitoring, sedition, decompressive craniectomy, and Hyperosmolar therapy.
Stroke: This is a medical condition that can happen to anyone at an unexpected time. The stroke is due to thrombolysis. The other causes are the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, higher baseline ICH volume, coma scale score, and intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) that result in morbidity and mortality. Treatment of strokes involves maintenance of blood pressure, cerebral perfusion, nutrition, ICP management, seizures, and fluid management.
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Identify the cause of hemorrhage, treat aneurysm if needed, manage systemic complications, and maintain blood pressure.
Meningitis: maintain hemodynamic stability and empirical treatment.
Encephalitis: treatment of seizures, Monitoring ICP, and sedation.
Acute Hemorrhagic Leucoencephalitis(AHL): Monitoring of hemodynamic stability and having high dose corticosteroids.
Spinal Cord Lesion, Neuromuscular Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and Autonomic Neuropathy: Maintain hemodynamic stability and monitor respiration.
Basic Life Support Monitoring: It involves pulse oximetry, electrocardiography, and assessment of comatose patients.
Neurological Monitoring: Continuous neurologic examination, multimodality monitor to monitor abnormalities and prevent injury in states that are insensitive to neurological exam confounded by coma, neuromuscular blockade, and sedation.
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring (ICP): Ventricular catheter to monitor PH, the concentration of glucose, and brain oxygen. You can take other treatments including barbiturates, decompressive Hemi-craniotomy, and hypertonic serum.
Neurological Intensive Care Units: These units are specialized in giving care to critically ill neurological and post neurological surgical patients. The units provide medical interventions including ventilation, elevated ICP, managing pain, airways, secondary brain injury, and anticoagulation. Patients with conditions such as seizure, impaired ability, lack of consciousness, and need mechanical ventilation have been admitted to Neurological Intensive Care to get proper medications.
Neuro-critical care is an advanced specialty in growing medical conditions. The success of neurocritical care is due to neurosurgery, interventional neuroradiology, neurology, and neuro-anaesthesiology.