Neuropathology is the study of diseases in the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and skeletal muscle nerve. The central nervous system(CNS) is the body’s important communication network. In specific locations of the brain, a lesion will cause minimal symptoms, on the other hand, if it is present in other areas then it will lead to major neurologic deficits. The abnormalities can happen in many ways such as aphasia, amnesia, motor & sensory deficits, headaches, dizziness, and seizures. Neuropathology relates to forensic pathology because brain-related diseases are directly related cause of death. When the brain and spinal cord area develop a tumor, it will affect by infectious processes such as viruses and bacteria that can lead to disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease. It is a multidisciplinary field that relies upon interactions with neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, and neurologists. Neuropathology is different from neuropathy, which means abnormalities of the nerves themselves rather than the tissues. Neuropathology deals with branches of the specializations of the nervous system and nerve tissue.
The diseases affecting the nervous system of the human body can cause problems such as pain, weakness, seizures, loss of vision, and issues with thinking or behavior. MRI tests like brain scans can show doctors where their symptoms are coming from, but, in certain cases, a tissue sample is essential to diagnose a neurological disease.
Neuropathology is classified into diseases such as infections, trauma, neoplasms, toxic disorders, spontaneous hemorrhages, degenerative diseases, and demyelinating diseases.
Huntington’s Disease: It is a rare condition that causes parts of the brain to degenerate. It also causes rapid, jerky body movements, and dementia.
Alzheimer’s Disease: This disease damages the brain and causes a steady loss of memory. It will affect your way of thinking and day-to-day activities.
Loy Gehrig’s Disease: It is a disease in which some nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord die slowly. These nerve cells are commonly called motor neurons, and they control the muscles that let you move the parts of your body.
Parkinson’s Disease: This disease occurs when the dopamine generating nerve cells have issues.
To diagnosis disease, a neuropathologist will examine autopsy or biopsy tissue from the brain and spinal cord. Tissues are observed through the muscles, eyes, surfaces of organs, and tumors. Radiologic imaging and CT scans are used to find abnormalities in the patient. As for autopsies, the main work of the neuropathologist is to help in the post-modern diagnosis of conditions that affect the central nervous system. The tissue samples are researched or diagnosis and forensic investigations. The advanced test in neuropathology is Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density (ENFD). In ENFD, a skin biopsy is taken to find out small fiber neuropathies by analyzing the nerve fibers of the skin. It is the best alternative for the traditional sural nerve biopsy and it is used to find painful small fiber neuropathies. Experimental neuropathology covers a wide range of topics including genetic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Most abnormalities are caused due to heterogenous etiologic factors. These factors may trigger the sequence of morphologic, molecular, and biochemical alterations of the brain, which leads to a functionally abnormal brain.