Neurophysiology is a branch of neuroscience and physiology that is concerned with the study of the function of neurons, glia, and networks. The tools used in electrophysiological recordings are voltage clamp, calcium imaging, optogenetics, molecular biology, recording of local field potentials, and patch-clamp. Neurophilosophy is a science that is related to neurochemistry, biophysics, mathematical neuroscience, neuroanatomy, and electrophysiology. On the whole, it is the study of neurons, the nervous system, and nerves, what their functions are and how they perform it. A neuron is a specialized cell and it is responsible for excitability and conductivity. Excitability is the ability to respond to changes happening in the environment; while conductivity is the ability to convey an impulse from one cell part of the body to another cell. The part of the neuron cell which is responsible for carrying potentials away from the body is called the nerve fiber. Some axon nerves are small in length, on the other hand, some axons are long. A nerve is a bundle of axons generated from various cells. Neurophysiologists use medically advanced techniques including calcium imaging, MRI, and more to study brain function. To know briefly about neurophysiology, go through the following terms.
An ion channel is a protein macromolecule that lets molecules pass through. The ions move in a direction determined by the velocity gradient. The different types of ion channels are chemically activated, mechanically stretched, and chemically activated. The ion channel is made up of several protein subunits, sitting across the membrane, letting ions to cross from one side to the other.
In the resting state, the neuron cell membrane is impermeable to ions. This is essential for the generation of the resting membrane potential. The major intracellular ion is potassium, the natural flow of ions by way of their concentration gradients is for potassium to leave the cell and sodium to enter. This movement of ions from the cell creates a negative membrane potential called hyperpolarisation.
The neuromuscular junction is also called a synapse. It is the junction of two neurons. The chemical synapse is found in the nervous system and the electrical synapses are found in cardiac muscle and glial cells.
The action potential propagation is attained by local current speed. The nerve is insulated with myelin with the nodes of Ranvier at various intervals along its length.
The neurotransmitter is released at the neurojunction and works with a protein in the postsynaptic membrane called the receptors. The receptors generally for a particular neurotransmitter. The types of receptors are N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA), Non-NMDA, and Metabotropic. The number of neurotransmitters responsible for the exchange of ions are excitatory amino acids, Inhibitory Amino acids, Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and neuropeptides.
Neurophysiology is a vast topic to study and understand in detail for those individuals working in any sector associated with Neuro-engineering.